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高三英语复习语法指导

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  高三英语复习语法,大局知道有哪些呢?如果不知道的,可以看小编的,接下来,小编给大家准备了高三英语复习语法指导,欢迎大家参考与借鉴。

  高三英语复习语法指导

  stomach-stomachs radio - radios, photo - photos, piano - pianos

  bamboo - bamboos, zoo - zoos

  a German-three Germans, an American-two Americans

  man servant-men servants; woman doctor-women doctors;

  man cook - men cooks; woman singer - women singers

  papers 报纸, 文件manners礼貌  goods货物 works1 工厂, 著作

  looks 外表  glasses 眼镜 greens青菜 hairs几根头发

  times 时代   sands 沙滩, 沙地  irons脚镣手铐 drinks饮料

  forces 军队 spirits 酒精, 情绪

  keep(break) one's word 守(失)信 leave word 留言

  a man of his word 有信用的人 in a word 简言之?

  word for(by) word 逐字地 upon my word 说实在话

  eat one words 收回前言, 认错 in other words 换句话说

  the last words 临终的话 waste one's words 白费口舌

  have words with 与某人吵嘴

  have a few words (a word) with 与某人说几句话

  a friend of my father's; a few friends of Liming's ;

  that book of Liming's; two friends of my brother's

  1)主语形式虽为单数, 但意义为复数, 谓语动词用复数。例如:

  The crowd were running for their lives.

  单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people, police , cattle, militia2(民兵)等。

  2)主语形式为复数, 而意义上却是单数, 谓语动词用单数。例如:

  The news was very exciting.

  形复意单的单词有news, works(工厂)和一些以ics结尾的学科名称,physics, politics, economics,mathematics等。

  某些集体名词, 如people, police, cattle, militia 等, 只当复数看待, 谓语动词必须用复数。例如:The police are searching for him.

  Five minutes is enough to do this exercise.

  Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in future.

  More than one student has seen the film.

  Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.

  More members than one are against your plan.

  一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时, 谓语通常用复数形式, 如:glasses, clothes, trousers, shoes, compasses, chopsticks, scissors等。

  但如果主语用“a kind of , a pair of , a series of等加名词”构成时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式。例如:A pair of shoes was on the desk.

  this kind of men的谓语用单数, men of this kind和these kind of men的谓语用复数。all kinds of 后跟复数名词, 谓语用复数形式。

  并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时, 谓语动词用单数形式, 这时and后面的名词没有冠词。例如:

  Truth and honesty is the best policy.

  The girl's teacher and friend is a young doctor.

  To love and to be loved is the great happiness.

  Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.

  A knife and fork is on the table.

  当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as , no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时, 其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:

  The teacher as well as the students was excited.

  The room with its furniture was rented.

  A (great) number of, many, a few 修饰可数复数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词用复数; a little, much, a great deal of,a large amount of 修饰不可数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

  如果主语由“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时, 谓语通常用复数, 这类词有:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead, the deaf and dumb3, the oppressed4, the injured, the wounded, the unemployed等;

  当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as , no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时, 其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:

  The teacher as well as the students was excited.

  The room with its furniture was rented.

  关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时, 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。例如:

  Those who want to go please sign your names here.

  Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

  19)疑问代词who, what, which 作主语时, 谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单复数。例如:

  Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu. Who live next door? It is Zhang and Liu.

  Which is (are) your book(s)? What produce(s) heat?

  two score of people中应加“of”,

  但three score and ten people “七十人”中不加of。

  scores of people指“许多人”

  表示“在几十年代”用in+the+“逢十的数词复数”。例如:

  in the 1990s 或90's或nineties.

  季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐、学科名称,球类、棋类名词名称前一般不加冠词。

  1/2 one(a) half 1/4 one(a) quarter

  系动词be,grow,get,become,feel,appear,prove,seem,look,keep,smell,taste,sound,turn,remain

  限定词+数量形容词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国藉+材料

  Those three beautiful large square old brown wood table

  某些以a-开首的形容词例如:afraid,alike,alone,asleep,awake, alive 等只能作表语,不能作定语。

  某些以-ly结尾的词是形容词而不是副词。例如:friendly,lively, lovely,lonely,likely,deadly,silly,orderly, timely5等。

  plenty of, a lot of 一般不用于疑问句和否定句中,通常用many或much代替。

  1)close接近地     closely仔细地,密切地

  2)free 免费地      freely自由地,无拘束地

  3)hard努力地      hardly几乎不

  4)late 晚,迟     lately 近来

  5)most 极,非常     mostly主要地

  6)wide广阔地,充分地 widely广泛地

  7)high高        highly高度地,非常地

  8)deep深,迟     deeply抽象意义的“深”

  9)loud大声地      loudly大声地(含有喧闹的意思)

  10)near邻近       nearly几乎

  good well/better best bad/ill,badly worse worst

  many/much more most little less least

  far farther/further farthest/furthest old elder/older eldest/oldest

  比较级的用法

  ①双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级+than”的结构表示。

  例如:This pen is better than that one.

  ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less+原级+than”的结构表示。例如:

  This room is less beautiful than that one.

  ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如:even,a lot,a bit,a little,still,much,far, yet, by far等修饰。例如:He works even harder than before.

  注意:英语的比较级前如无even, still,或yet 等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“……一些”或不译出,一般不可用“更”,如:

  She is better than she was yesterday.她比昨天好些了。

  Please come earlier tomorrow.请明天早点来。

  注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面, 如放在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。

  如:He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

  ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the+比较级(主语+谓语),the+比较级(主语+谓语)”的结构。例如:

  The harder he works,the happier he feels.

  ⑤不与其它事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级+and+比较级”的结构。例如:The weather is getting colder and colder.

  The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

  ⑥某些以-or结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。(这些词有inferior,superior6,junior,senior,prior等。例如:

  He is superior to Mr Wang in mathematics.

  ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those),one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人,也可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。例如:

  The book on the table is more interesting than that on the desk.

  A box made of iron is stronger than one made of wood.

  ⑧表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型:

  A) A is three (four,etc.) times the size (height, length, width,etc) of B.

  例如:The new building is four times the size (the height) of the old one.

  这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(四倍高)。

  (这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍[高三倍])。

  B) A is three (four, etc.) times as big (high, long, wide, etc.) as B.例如:

  Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。

  (亚洲比欧洲大三倍。)

  C) A is three (four,etc.) times bigger (higher, longer, wider,etc.) than B.

  例如:Your school is three times bigger than ours.

  你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。(你们的学校是我们学校的四倍大。)

  用 times 表示倍数, 一般只限于表示包括基数在内三倍或三倍以上的数。表示两倍可以用 twice 或 double

  3)最高级的用法

  ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the+最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。例如:

  Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.He works (the) hardest in his class.

  ②最高级可被序数词以及much, by far, nearly, almost, by no means, not quite, not really,nothing like等词语所修饰。例如:

  This hat is by far/ much/ nearly/ almost / not nearly/by no means/ not quite/nothing like the biggest.

  How much did the second most expensive hat coat?

  ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent,extreme,perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

  ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。He is the tallest (boy) in his class.

  ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。例如:

  Of all the boys he came (the) earliest.

  如果复数名词前有many、few,不可数名词前有much、little等表示量的形容词时,该用so而不用such。如:

  I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.

  Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together.

  但little不表示数量而表示“小”的意思时,仍用such。如:

  They are such little children that the they cannot clean the house by themslves.

  6)almost与nearly

  ①两者都可以修饰 all, every, always等词,都可以用于否定句中。

  ②在very, pretty, not后用nearly, 不用almost。例如:

  I'm not nearly ready.

  ③在any, no, none, never前用almost, 不用nearly。例如:

  I almost never see her.

  need 表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中。在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to或should 代替。例如:

  You needn't come so early. Need I finish the work today? --Yes, you must.

  注意:needn't+不定式的完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”。例如:You needn't have waited for me.

  “should+have+过去分词”表示应该做到而实际上没有做到。

  You should have started earlier.

  “ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去应做某事而实际未做。

  You ought to have helped him (but you didn't)

  书报的标题,小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。

  表示感觉,愿望和状态的某些动词如have,be,hear,see,like等词一般不用进行时。

  有些动词形式上是主动结构,但表示被动的意思。常见的有可和 well, easily 等副词连用的不及物动词sell,wash,write,read,clean,cook等。例如:

  The cloth washes well.这布很经洗。

  The new product sells well.这新产品很畅销。

  The pen writes well.这支笔很好写。

  虚拟语气在动词 arrange,command, demand, desire,insist, order,propose, request, require, suggest等后面的宾语从句中用“(should)+ 动词原形”。

  例如:We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.

  We insisted that they (should) go with us.

  The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.

  He demanded that we (should) start right away.

  注意:insist 作“力言”、“强调”解时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。只有当 insist 作“坚持(认为),”“坚持(应该)”解时宾语从句才用虚拟语气。例如:

  Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything.

  作advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request等名词的表语从句和同位语从句,其谓语动词要用虚拟语气的结构“(should)+动词原形”。例如:We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should) go to Beijing for sightseeing.

  My idea is that we (should) do exercises first.

  在feel,hear,listen to,look at,notice,observe,see, watch,have,let,make等词后的补足语中,不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带to。例如:I often hear him sing the song. He is often heard to sing the song.

  注意:不定式动词在介词but, except, besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带to,否则要带to.如:

  She could do nothing but cry. What do you like to do besides swim?

  I have no choice but to go.

  作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。例如:

  He is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about.

  Please give me a knife to cut with.

  在 It is no use/good,not any use/good,useless,There is no 等后必须用动名词。

  2)作表语。例如:Her job is teaching7.

  3)作宾语。例如:He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.

  注① admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,face,feel like,finish,forgive,give up,imagine,include, keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist,risk,suggest, can't help, can't stand(无法忍受)等动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。

  注②forget, go on,like,mean,regret, remember, stop, try等动词可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。

  I remember doing the exercise .(我记得做过练习。)

  I must remember to do it .(我必须记着做这事。)

  I tried not to go there.(我设法不去那里。)

  I tried doing it again.(我试着又干了一次。)]

  Stop speaking .(不要讲话。)He stopped to talk .(他停下来讲话。)

  mean to do 有意... mean doing意味着...

  I mean to come early today.(我打算今天早些来。)

  Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

  (误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。)

  注③在allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。例如:

  We don't allow smoking here. We don't allow students to smoke.

  注④动词need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,若表示的含义是被动的,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动式。例如:

  The window needs(requires, wants)cleaning(to be cleaned).

  注⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, pay attention to, stick to,to be used to, object to,thank you for, excuse me for 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式。例如:I look forward to hearing from you soon.

  过去分词、现在分词一般被动式及完成被动式作状语的比较:

  1)过去分词与现在分词一般被动式都有被动意义,有时两者无多大区别。

  例如:(Being) seized with a sudden fear, she gave a scream.

  在某些情况下,二者则是有区别的。例如:

  United, we stand; divided, we fall.(条件)

  Badly polluted, the water cannot be drunk8.(原因)

  Being written in haste9, the composition is full of mistakes.

  (原因,强调写的过程,故应用现在分词一般被动式)

  2)有时过去分词与现在分词完成被动式皆表示已完成的动作,在意义上无多大区别。例如:

  (Having been) weakened10 by storms, the bridge was no longer safe.

  但有时是有区别的。例如:

  Having been deserted11 by his guide, he couldn't find his way through the jungle.(为了强调已完成的动作)

  Asked to stay, I couldn't very well refuse.

  (这里 asked 可能意味着 having been asked, 也可能意味着when/since I was asked, 但用了 having been asked 就不会有歧义。)

  下面句中过去分词表示的时间与谓语动词所表示的时间相同,所以不能代之以强调先于谓语动词的现在分词完成被动式。例如:

  Covered with confusion12, I left the room.我很窘地离开了房间。

  United, we stand; divided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。

  3)有时现在分词一般式的被动式与其完成式的被动式完全同义,皆表示已完成的动作。这时用一般式的被动式较好。例如:Being surrounded (Having been surrounded)the enemy troups were forced to surrender13.

  前句的谓语是there be,后边的疑问部分也用there be形式。例如:

  There is a radio on the table,isn't there? Yes,there is.

  前句的谓语动词为 have to /had to 时,其疑问部分的谓语动词通常用do 的适当形式。例如:We have to get up at four tomorrow, don't we?

  They had to leave early, didn't they?

  前句的谓语动词为used to 时,其疑问部分的谓语动词可采取两种形式。

  例如:He used to live in London, use(d)n't he /didn't he?

  There used to be a cinema here before the war, use(d)n't there /didn't there?

  前句的谓语动词是ought to, 则疑问部分的谓语动词通常用ought /oughtn't 代替。例如:Such things ought not to be allowed, ought they?

  He ought to be punished, oughtn't he?

  但在正式文体中,用ought we not形式。例如:

  We ought to go, ought we not?或We ought to go ,should we not?

  当陈述部分有dare 或need 时,若dare 和need为实义动词,疑问部分的谓语用do 的适当形式;若dare 和need 为情态动词,疑问部分用dare 或need 构成。例如:We need to do it, don't we? You daren't go there, dare you?

  含有情态动词must的句子表示推则,作“想必”解时,疑问部分要根据must后面的不定式结构的时态来确定,不可用mustn't。若前句强调对现在情况的推测,疑问部分用aren't(isn't)十主语,例如:You must be tired,aren't you?

  注意:若陈述部分的must表示“有必要”时,附加疑问句部分则用needn't。

  例如:You must go home right now, needn't you?

  当mustn't 表示禁止时,附加疑问部分一般用must。如:

  You mustn't walk on grass, must you?

  前句谓语动词是must have+过去分词时,若前句强调对过去情况的推测(一般有过去时间状语),疑问部分的谓语动词用didn't+主语;若前句强调动作的完成,疑问部分的谓语动词用haven't(hasn't)+主语, 例如:

  He must have met her yesterday, didn't he?

  You must have seen the film, haven't you?

  陈述句谓语部分出现否定词缀时(前缀或后缀),疑问部分仍用否定结构。例如:He is unfit for his office, isn't he?

  如果陈述部分包含有no,never,hardly,seldom,few,little,nowhere,nothing等否定或半否定词时,疑问部分用肯定形式。例如:He is hardly 14 years old,is he?

  如果陈述部分的主语为everyone,someone,no one等不定代词,其疑问部分的主语可用he,也可用they,从而疑问部分的谓语动词也可用复数形式。例如:

  Everyone knows his job, doesn't he? Everyone knows their job,don't they?

  No one was hurt,were they?

  如果陈述部分的主语是指示代词this,that等时,疑问部分的主语在形式上与前者不同,但在逻辑上却与前者一致。例如:This is very important,isn't it?

  如果陈述部分是 I'm...结构,附加疑问部分一般用 aren't I。

  例如:I'm late, aren't I?

  如果陈述部分以不定式代词one作主语,附加疑问部分的主语在正式的场合用one,在非正式的场合用you。例如:One can't be too careful,can one(you)?

  Have a cup of tea, will you? Let's go there,shall we?

  但:Let us go there,will you?

  同位语从句跟在名词后面,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。引导同位语从句的名词主要有fact,news,promise,idea,truth等。连接词用that (不用which),及连接副词how, when, where, why等。例如:

  His delay is due to the fact that the car went wrong halfway14.

  The news that our team has won the match is true.

  She asked the reason why there was a delay.

  关联词只能用whether不能用if表示“是否”的情况如下:

  A)在表语从句和同位语从句中。例如:

  The question is whether the film is worth seeing.

  The news whether our team has won the match is unknown.

  B)在主语从句中,只有用it作形式主语时,whether和if都能引导主语从句,否则,也只能用whether。例如:

  Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn't been decided15 yet.

  It hasn't been decided whether(if)we shall attend the meeting.

  C)在介词之后。(介词往往可以省略)例如:

  It all depends (on) whether) they will support us.

  D)后面直接跟动词不定式时。例如:He doesn't know whether to stay or not.

  E)后面紧接or not 时。例如:We didn't know whether or not she was ready.

  F)引导让步状语从句,只能用whether。例如:

  Whether you like it or not, you must do it well.

  G)用if会引起歧义时。例如:Please let me know if you like it.

  该句有两个意思:“请告诉我你是否喜欢”。

  或“如果你喜欢,请告诉我。”用了whether就可以避免。

  ②关联词if,whether均可使用的情况如下:

  A)引导宾语从句。例如:I wonder if(whether) the news is true or not.

  B)在“be+形容词”之后。 例如:He was not sure whether(if) it is right or wrong.

  ③关联词只能用whether或if,不能用that的情况如下:若doubt一词作“怀疑”解接宾语从句时,主句为肯定句用whether或if,主句为否定句或疑问句用that。例如:I doubt whether he will come soon.

  I do not doubt that he will come soon. Do you doubt that he will come soon?

  在下面几种情况下必须用“that”引导定语从句:

  1)先行词是不定代词:all,few,little, much,something,nothing,anything等。

  例如:All that we have to do is to practise every day.

  2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰。例如:

  The first lesson that I learned16 will never be forgotten.

  3)先行词被all,any,every, each, few,little,no,some, 等修饰。例如:

  I have read all the book [ZZ(Z](that)[ZZ)] you gave me.

  4)先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。例如:

  He is the only person that I want to talk to.

  5)先行词既有人又有物时。例如:

  They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.

  4.由when,where,why引导的定语从句。例如:

  I know the reason why he came late.

  This is the place where we lived for 5 years.

  I will never forget the day when I met Mr.Liu.

  注意:先行词是表示地点时,有时用where,有时用that (which)引导定语从句。这时要根据从句的谓语动词是及物的还是不及物的。如果是及物的就用that(which),否则用where。例如:This is the house where he lived last year.

  This is the house that (which) he visited last year.

  用no sooner…than和hardly…when引导的从句表示“刚……就……”。主句中的动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时;而且主句一般倒装,把助动词had提到前面。例如:Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise.

  当我们要表示“某件事已成”时,应用“was (were) able to”,而不能用“could”。例如:He was able to go to the party yesterday evening and he enjoyed himself very much.

  倒 装

  英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。把谓语动词放在主语之前,就叫倒装结构。如果全部谓语放在主语之前,叫全部例装;如果只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前就叫部分倒装。倒装结构通常用于下列场合。

  (一)完全倒装

  1.用于there be句型。例如:There are many students in the classroom.

  2.用于“here (there,now,then)+不及物动词+主语”的句型中,或以out,in,up,down,away等副词开头的句子里,以表示强调。例如:

  Here comes the bus. There goes the bell.

  Now comes your turn. Out went the children.

  注:代词作主语时,主谓语序不变。例如:Here it is. Here he comes.

  3.当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,也常常引起全部倒装。例如:

  South of the city lies a big steel factory.

  From the valley came a frightening sound.

  4.表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语”。

  1)形容词+连系动词+主语

  Present at the meeting were Professor White,Professor Smith and many other guests.

  2)过去分词+连系动词+主语

  Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people.

  3)介词短语+be+主语

  Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.

  5.用于so,nor,neither开头的句子,表示重复前句部分内容。原句的谓语应与前句谓语的时态、形式相一致。例如:He has been to Beijing. So have I.

  Li Wei can't answer the question. Neither can I.

  6.为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时。

  1)They arrived at a farmhouse,in front of which sat a small boy.

  2)Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms.

  (二)部分倒装

  1.用于疑问句。例如:Do you speak English?

  2.用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句。例如:

  Had you reviewed your lessons,you might have passed the examination17.

  3.用于“形容词(或名词、动词)+as(though)引导的让步状语从句中。例如:Pretty as she is ,she is not clever. Try as he would, he might fail again.

  注意:1)在用as(though)引导的让步状语从句中,如果主语较长,也可实行全部倒装。例如:Difficult as was the chemistry homework, it was finished in time.

  2)如果从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词。例如:

  Child as he was, he had to make a living.

  4.用于no sooner…than…,hardly…when和not until的句型中。例如:

  Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.

  5.用于never,hardly,seldom,scarcely, barely18, little,often,at no time,not only,not once等词开头的句子。例如:

  Never shall I do this again. Little did he know who the woman was.

  6.用于以only开头的句子(only修饰副词,介词短语或状语从句时)。例如:

  Only this afternoon did I finish the novel.Only in this way can yo master English.

  Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he wa重点难点回顾

  stomach-stomachs radio - radios, photo - photos, piano - pianos

  bamboo - bamboos, zoo - zoos

  a German-three Germans, an American-two Americans

  man servant-men servants; woman doctor-women doctors;

  man cook - men cooks; woman singer - women singers

  papers 报纸, 文件manners礼貌  goods货物 works 工厂, 著作

  looks 外表  glasses 眼镜 greens青菜 hairs几根头发

  times 时代   sands 沙滩, 沙地  irons脚镣手铐 drinks饮料

  forces 军队 spirits 酒精, 情绪

  keep(break) one's word 守(失)信 leave word 留言

  a man of his word 有信用的人 in a word 简言之?

  word for(by) word 逐字地 upon my word 说实在话

  eat one words 收回前言, 认错 in other words 换句话说

  the last words 临终的话 waste one's words 白费口舌

  have words with 与某人吵嘴

  have a few words (a word) with 与某人说几句话

  a friend of my father's; a few friends of Liming's ;

  that book of Liming's; two friends of my brother's

  1)主语形式虽为单数, 但意义为复数, 谓语动词用复数。例如:

  The crowd were running for their lives.

  单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people, police , cattle, militia(民兵)等。

  2)主语形式为复数, 而意义上却是单数, 谓语动词用单数。例如:

  The news was very exciting.

  形复意单的单词有news, works(工厂)和一些以ics结尾的学科名称,physics, politics, economics,mathematics等。

  某些集体名词, 如people, police, cattle, militia 等, 只当复数看待, 谓语动词必须用复数。例如:The police are searching for him.

  Five minutes is enough to do this exercise.

  Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in future.

  More than one student has seen the film.

  Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.

  More members than one are against your plan.

  一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时, 谓语通常用复数形式, 如:glasses, clothes, trousers, shoes, compasses, chopsticks, scissors等。

  但如果主语用“a kind of , a pair of , a series of等加名词”构成时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式。例如:A pair of shoes was on the desk.

  this kind of men的谓语用单数, men of this kind和these kind of men的谓语用复数。all kinds of 后跟复数名词, 谓语用复数形式。

  并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时, 谓语动词用单数形式, 这时and后面的名词没有冠词。例如:

  Truth and honesty is the best policy.

  The girl's teacher and friend is a young doctor.

  To love and to be loved is the great happiness.

  Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.

  A knife and fork is on the table.

  当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as , no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时, 其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:

  The teacher as well as the students was excited.

  The room with its furniture was rented.

  A (great) number of, many, a few 修饰可数复数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词用复数; a little, much, a great deal of,a large amount of 修饰不可数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。

  如果主语由“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时, 谓语通常用复数, 这类词有:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead, the deaf and dumb, the oppressed, the injured, the wounded, the unemployed等;

  当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as , no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时, 其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:

  The teacher as well as the students was excited.

  The room with its furniture was rented.

  关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时, 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。例如:

  Those who want to go please sign your names here.

  Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

  19)疑问代词who, what, which 作主语时, 谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单复数。例如:

  Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu. Who live next door? It is Zhang and Liu.

  Which is (are) your book(s)? What produce(s) heat?

  two score of people中应加“of”,

  但three score and ten people “七十人”中不加of。

  scores of people指“许多人”

  表示“在几十年代”用in+the+“逢十的数词复数”。例如:

  in the 1990s 或90's或nineties.

  季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐、学科名称,球类、棋类名词名称前一般不加冠词。

  1/2 one(a) half 1/4 one(a) quarter

  系动词be,grow,get,become,feel,appear,prove,seem,look,keep,smell,taste,sound,turn,remain

  限定词+数量形容词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国藉+材料

  Those three beautiful large square old brown wood table

  某些以a-开首的形容词例如:afraid,alike,alone,asleep,awake, alive 等只能作表语,不能作定语。

  某些以-ly结尾的词是形容词而不是副词。例如:friendly,lively, lovely,lonely,likely,deadly,silly,orderly, timely等。

  plenty of, a lot of 一般不用于疑问句和否定句中,通常用many或much代替。

  1)close接近地     closely仔细地,密切地

  2)free 免费地      freely自由地,无拘束地

  3)hard努力地      hardly几乎不

  4)late 晚,迟     lately 近来

  5)most 极,非常     mostly主要地

  6)wide广阔地,充分地 widely广泛地

  7)high高        highly高度地,非常地

  8)deep深,迟     deeply抽象意义的“深”

  9)loud大声地      loudly大声地(含有喧闹的意思)

  10)near邻近       nearly几乎

  good well/better best bad/ill,badly worse worst

  many/much more most little less least

  far farther/further farthest/furthest old elder/older eldest/oldest

  比较级的用法

  ①双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级+than”的结构表示。

  例如:This pen is better than that one.

  ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less+原级+than”的结构表示。例如:

  This room is less beautiful than that one.

  ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如:even,a lot,a bit,a little,still,much,far, yet, by far等修饰。例如:He works even harder than before.

  注意:英语的比较级前如无even, still,或yet 等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“……一些”或不译出,一般不可用“更”,如:

  She is better than she was yesterday.她比昨天好些了。

  Please come earlier tomorrow.请明天早点来。

  注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面, 如放在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。

  如:He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

  ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the+比较级(主语+谓语),the+比较级(主语+谓语)”的结构。例如:

  The harder he works,the happier he feels.

  ⑤不与其它事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级+and+比较级”的结构。例如:The weather is getting colder and colder.

  The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

  ⑥某些以-or结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。(这些词有inferior,superior,junior,senior,prior等。例如:

  He is superior to Mr Wang in mathematics.

  ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those),one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人,也可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。例如:

  The book on the table is more interesting than that on the desk.

  A box made of iron is stronger than one made of wood.

  ⑧表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型:

  A) A is three (four,etc.) times the size (height, length, width,etc) of B.

  例如:The new building is four times the size (the height) of the old one.

  这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(四倍高)。

  (这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍[高三倍])。

  B) A is three (four, etc.) times as big (high, long, wide, etc.) as B.例如:

  Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。

  (亚洲比欧洲大三倍。)

  C) A is three (four,etc.) times bigger (higher, longer, wider,etc.) than B.

  例如:Your school is three times bigger than ours.

  你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。(你们的学校是我们学校的四倍大。)

  用 times 表示倍数, 一般只限于表示包括基数在内三倍或三倍以上的数。表示两倍可以用 twice 或 double

  3)最高级的用法

  ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the+最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。例如:

  Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.He works (the) hardest in his class.

  ②最高级可被序数词以及much, by far, nearly, almost, by no means, not quite, not really,nothing like等词语所修饰。例如:

  This hat is by far/ much/ nearly/ almost / not nearly/by no means/ not quite/nothing like the biggest.

  How much did the second most expensive hat coat?

  ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent,extreme,perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

  ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。He is the tallest (boy) in his class.

  ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。例如:

  Of all the boys he came (the) earliest.

  如果复数名词前有many、few,不可数名词前有much、little等表示量的形容词时,该用so而不用such。如:

  I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.

  Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together.

  但little不表示数量而表示“小”的意思时,仍用such。如:

  They are such little children that the they cannot clean the house by themslves.

  6)almost与nearly

  ①两者都可以修饰 all, every, always等词,都可以用于否定句中。

  ②在very, pretty, not后用nearly, 不用almost。例如:

  I'm not nearly ready.

  ③在any, no, none, never前用almost, 不用nearly。例如:

  I almost never see her.

  need 表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中。在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to或should 代替。例如:

  You needn't come so early. Need I finish the work today? --Yes, you must.

  注意:needn't+不定式的完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”。例如:You needn't have waited for me.

  “should+have+过去分词”表示应该做到而实际上没有做到。

  You should have started earlier.

  “ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去应做某事而实际未做。

  You ought to have helped him (but you didn't)

  书报的标题,小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。

  表示感觉,愿望和状态的某些动词如have,be,hear,see,like等词一般不用进行时。

  有些动词形式上是主动结构,但表示被动的意思。常见的有可和 well, easily 等副词连用的不及物动词sell,wash,write,read,clean,cook等。例如:

  The cloth washes well.这布很经洗。

  The new product sells well.这新产品很畅销。

  The pen writes well.这支笔很好写。

  虚拟语气在动词 arrange,command, demand, desire,insist, order,propose, request, require, suggest等后面的宾语从句中用“(should)+ 动词原形”。

  例如:We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.

  We insisted that they (should) go with us.

  The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.

  He demanded that we (should) start right away.

  注意:insist 作“力言”、“强调”解时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。只有当 insist 作“坚持(认为),”“坚持(应该)”解时宾语从句才用虚拟语气。例如:

  Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything.

  作advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request等名词的表语从句和同位语从句,其谓语动词要用虚拟语气的结构“(should)+动词原形”。例如:We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should) go to Beijing for sightseeing.

  My idea is that we (should) do exercises first.

  在feel,hear,listen to,look at,notice,observe,see, watch,have,let,make等词后的补足语中,不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带to。例如:I often hear him sing the song. He is often heard to sing the song.

  注意:不定式动词在介词but, except, besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带to,否则要带to.如:

  She could do nothing but cry. What do you like to do besides swim?

  I have no choice but to go.

  作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。例如:

  He is looking for a room to live in. There is nothing to worry about.

  Please give me a knife to cut with.

  在 It is no use/good,not any use/good,useless,There is no 等后必须用动名词。

  2)作表语。例如:Her job is teaching.

  3)作宾语。例如:He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.

  注① admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,face,feel like,finish,forgive,give up,imagine,include, keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist,risk,suggest, can't help, can't stand(无法忍受)等动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。

  注②forget, go on,like,mean,regret, remember, stop, try等动词可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。

  I remember doing the exercise .(我记得做过练习。)

  I must remember to do it .(我必须记着做这事。)

  I tried not to go there.(我设法不去那里。)

  I tried doing it again.(我试着又干了一次。)]

  Stop speaking .(不要讲话。)He stopped to talk .(他停下来讲话。)

  mean to do 有意... mean doing意味着...

  I mean to come early today.(我打算今天早些来。)

  Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

  (误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。)

  注③在allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。例如:

  We don't allow smoking here. We don't allow students to smoke.

  注④动词need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,若表示的含义是被动的,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动式。例如:

  The window needs(requires, wants)cleaning(to be cleaned).

  注⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, pay attention to, stick to,to be used to, object to,thank you for, excuse me for 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式。例如:I look forward to hearing from you soon.

  过去分词、现在分词一般被动式及完成被动式作状语的比较:

  1)过去分词与现在分词一般被动式都有被动意义,有时两者无多大区别。

  例如:(Being) seized with a sudden fear, she gave a scream.

  在某些情况下,二者则是有区别的。例如:

  United, we stand; divided, we fall.(条件)

  Badly polluted, the water cannot be drunk.(原因)

  Being written in haste, the composition is full of mistakes.

  (原因,强调写的过程,故应用现在分词一般被动式)

  2)有时过去分词与现在分词完成被动式皆表示已完成的动作,在意义上无多大区别。例如:

  (Having been) weakened by storms, the bridge was no longer safe.

  但有时是有区别的。例如:

  Having been deserted by his guide, he couldn't find his way through the jungle.(为了强调已完成的动作)

  Asked to stay, I couldn't very well refuse.

  (这里 asked 可能意味着 having been asked, 也可能意味着when/since I was asked, 但用了 having been asked 就不会有歧义。)

  下面句中过去分词表示的时间与谓语动词所表示的时间相同,所以不能代之以强调先于谓语动词的现在分词完成被动式。例如:

  Covered with confusion, I left the room.我很窘地离开了房间。

  United, we stand; divided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。

  3)有时现在分词一般式的被动式与其完成式的被动式完全同义,皆表示已完成的动作。这时用一般式的被动式较好。例如:Being surrounded (Having been surrounded)the enemy troups were forced to surrender.

  前句的谓语是there be,后边的疑问部分也用there be形式。例如:

  There is a radio on the table,isn't there? Yes,there is.

  前句的谓语动词为 have to /had to 时,其疑问部分的谓语动词通常用do 的适当形式。例如:We have to get up at four tomorrow, don't we?

  They had to leave early, didn't they?

  前句的谓语动词为used to 时,其疑问部分的谓语动词可采取两种形式。

  例如:He used to live in London, use(d)n't he /didn't he?

  There used to be a cinema here before the war, use(d)n't there /didn't there?

  前句的谓语动词是ought to, 则疑问部分的谓语动词通常用ought /oughtn't 代替。例如:Such things ought not to be allowed, ought they?

  He ought to be punished, oughtn't he?

  但在正式文体中,用ought we not形式。例如:

  We ought to go, ought we not?或We ought to go ,should we not?

  当陈述部分有dare 或need 时,若dare 和need为实义动词,疑问部分的谓语用do 的适当形式;若dare 和need 为情态动词,疑问部分用dare 或need 构成。例如:We need to do it, don't we? You daren't go there, dare you?

  含有情态动词must的句子表示推则,作“想必”解时,疑问部分要根据must后面的不定式结构的时态来确定,不可用mustn't。若前句强调对现在情况的推测,疑问部分用aren't(isn't)十主语,例如:You must be tired,aren't you?

  注意:若陈述部分的must表示“有必要”时,附加疑问句部分则用needn't。

  例如:You must go home right now, needn't you?

  当mustn't 表示禁止时,附加疑问部分一般用must。如:

  You mustn't walk on grass, must you?

  前句谓语动词是must have+过去分词时,若前句强调对过去情况的推测(一般有过去时间状语),疑问部分的谓语动词用didn't+主语;若前句强调动作的完成,疑问部分的谓语动词用haven't(hasn't)+主语, 例如:

  He must have met her yesterday, didn't he?

  You must have seen the film, haven't you?

  陈述句谓语部分出现否定词缀时(前缀或后缀),疑问部分仍用否定结构。例如:He is unfit for his office, isn't he?

  如果陈述部分包含有no,never,hardly,seldom,few,little,nowhere,nothing等否定或半否定词时,疑问部分用肯定形式。例如:He is hardly 14 years old,is he?

  如果陈述部分的主语为everyone,someone,no one等不定代词,其疑问部分的主语可用he,也可用they,从而疑问部分的谓语动词也可用复数形式。例如:

  Everyone knows his job, doesn't he? Everyone knows their job,don't they?

  No one was hurt,were they?

  如果陈述部分的主语是指示代词this,that等时,疑问部分的主语在形式上与前者不同,但在逻辑上却与前者一致。例如:This is very important,isn't it?

  如果陈述部分是 I'm...结构,附加疑问部分一般用 aren't I。

  例如:I'm late, aren't I?

  如果陈述部分以不定式代词one作主语,附加疑问部分的主语在正式的场合用one,在非正式的场合用you。例如:One can't be too careful,can one(you)?

  Have a cup of tea, will you? Let's go there,shall we?

  但:Let us go there,will you?

  同位语从句跟在名词后面,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。引导同位语从句的名词主要有fact,news,promise,idea,truth等。连接词用that (不用which),及连接副词how, when, where, why等。例如:

  His delay is due to the fact that the car went wrong halfway.

  The news that our team has won the match is true.

  She asked the reason why there was a delay.

  关联词只能用whether不能用if表示“是否”的情况如下:

  A)在表语从句和同位语从句中。例如:

  The question is whether the film is worth seeing.

  The news whether our team has won the match is unknown.

  B)在主语从句中,只有用it作形式主语时,whether和if都能引导主语从句,否则,也只能用whether。例如:

  Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn't been decided yet.

  It hasn't been decided whether(if)we shall attend the meeting.

  C)在介词之后。(介词往往可以省略)例如:

  It all depends (on) whether) they will support us.

  D)后面直接跟动词不定式时。例如:He doesn't know whether to stay or not.

  E)后面紧接or not 时。例如:We didn't know whether or not she was ready.

  F)引导让步状语从句,只能用whether。例如:

  Whether you like it or not, you must do it well.

  G)用if会引起歧义时。例如:Please let me know if you like it.

  该句有两个意思:“请告诉我你是否喜欢”。

  或“如果你喜欢,请告诉我。”用了whether就可以避免。

  ②关联词if,whether均可使用的情况如下:

  A)引导宾语从句。例如:I wonder if(whether) the news is true or not.

  B)在“be+形容词”之后。 例如:He was not sure whether(if) it is right or wrong.

  ③关联词只能用whether或if,不能用that的情况如下:若doubt一词作“怀疑”解接宾语从句时,主句为肯定句用whether或if,主句为否定句或疑问句用that。例如:I doubt whether he will come soon.

  I do not doubt that he will come soon. Do you doubt that he will come soon?

  在下面几种情况下必须用“that”引导定语从句:

  1)先行词是不定代词:all,few,little, much,something,nothing,anything等。

  例如:All that we have to do is to practise every day.

  2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰。例如:

  The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.

  3)先行词被all,any,every, each, few,little,no,some, 等修饰。例如:

  I have read all the book [ZZ(Z](that)[ZZ)] you gave me.

  4)先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。例如:

  He is the only person that I want to talk to.

  5)先行词既有人又有物时。例如:

  They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.

  4.由when,where,why引导的定语从句。例如:

  I know the reason why he came late.

  This is the place where we lived for 5 years.

  I will never forget the day when I met Mr.Liu.

  注意:先行词是表示地点时,有时用where,有时用that (which)引导定语从句。这时要根据从句的谓语动词是及物的还是不及物的。如果是及物的就用that(which),否则用where。例如:This is the house where he lived last year.

  This is the house that (which) he visited last year.

  用no sooner…than和hardly…when引导的从句表示“刚……就……”。主句中的动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时;而且主句一般倒装,把助动词had提到前面。例如:Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise.

  当我们要表示“某件事已成”时,应用“was (were) able to”,而不能用“could”。例如:He was able to go to the party yesterday evening and he enjoyed himself very much.

  倒 装

  英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。把谓语动词放在主语之前,就叫倒装结构。如果全部谓语放在主语之前,叫全部例装;如果只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前就叫部分倒装。倒装结构通常用于下列场合。

  (一)完全倒装

  1.用于there be句型。例如:There are many students in the classroom.

  2.用于“here (there,now,then)+不及物动词+主语”的句型中,或以out,in,up,down,away等副词开头的句子里,以表示强调。例如:

  Here comes the bus. There goes the bell.

  Now comes your turn. Out went the children.

  注:代词作主语时,主谓语序不变。例如:Here it is. Here he comes.

  3.当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,也常常引起全部倒装。例如:

  South of the city lies a big steel factory.

  From the valley came a frightening sound.

  4.表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语”。

  1)形容词+连系动词+主语

  Present at the meeting were Professor White,Professor Smith and many other guests.

  2)过去分词+连系动词+主语

  Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people.

  3)介词短语+be+主语

  Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.

  5.用于so,nor,neither开头的句子,表示重复前句部分内容。原句的谓语应与前句谓语的时态、形式相一致。例如:He has been to Beijing. So have I.

  Li Wei can't answer the question. Neither can I.

  6.为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时。

  1)They arrived at a farmhouse,in front of which sat a small boy.

  2)Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms.

  (二)部分倒装

  1.用于疑问句。例如:Do you speak English?

  2.用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句。例如:

  Had you reviewed your lessons,you might have passed the examination.

  3.用于“形容词(或名词、动词)+as(though)引导的让步状语从句中。例如:Pretty as she is ,she is not clever. Try as he would, he might fail again.

  注意:1)在用as(though)引导的让步状语从句中,如果主语较长,也可实行全部倒装。例如:Difficult as was the chemistry homework, it was finished in time.

  2)如果从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词。例如:

  Child as he was, he had to make a living.

  4.用于no sooner…than…,hardly…when和not until的句型中。例如:

  Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.

  5.用于never,hardly,seldom,scarcely, barely, little,often,at no time,not only,not once等词开头的句子。例如:

  Never shall I do this again. Little did he know who the woman was.

  6.用于以only开头的句子(only修饰副词,介词短语或状语从句时)。例如:

  Only this afternoon did I finish the novel.Only in this way can yo master English.

  Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.

  如果only后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装。例如:

  Only Wang Ling knows this.

  7.如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时,一般不用倒装。例如:“Let's go,” said the man.

  8.用于某些表示祝愿的句子。例如:May you succeed!祝你成功!s in.

  如果only后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装。例如:

  Only Wang Ling knows this.

  7.如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时,一般不用倒装。例如:“Let's go,” said the man.

  8.用于某些表示祝愿的句子。例如:May you succeed!祝你成功!




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